1. Writing ERC-20 Smart Contract

1.1 Overall structure of MyERC20

The complete source code of MyERC20.sol is given below. In this implementation, constructor invokes _mint to mint a predefined amount of token on contract deploy.

pragma solidity ^0.5.0;
/**
* @dev Interface of the ERC20 standard as defined in the EIP. Does not include
* the optional functions; to access them see `ERC20Detailed`.
*/
interface IERC20 {
function totalSupply() external view returns (uint256);
function balanceOf(address account) external view returns (uint256);
function transfer(address recipient, uint256 amount) external returns (bool);
function allowance(address owner, address spender) external view returns (uint256);
function approve(address spender, uint256 amount) external returns (bool);
function transferFrom(address sender, address recipient, uint256 amount) external returns (bool);
event Transfer(address indexed from, address indexed to, uint256 value);
event Approval(address indexed owner, address indexed spender, uint256 value);
}
library SafeMath {
/**
* @dev Returns the addition of two unsigned integers, reverting on
* overflow.
*
* Counterpart to Solidity's `+` operator.
*
* Requirements:
* - Addition cannot overflow.
*/
function add(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
uint256 c = a + b;
require(c >= a, "SafeMath: addition overflow");
return c;
}
/**
* @dev Returns the subtraction of two unsigned integers, reverting on
* overflow (when the result is negative).
*
* Counterpart to Solidity's `-` operator.
*
* Requirements:
* - Subtraction cannot overflow.
*/
function sub(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
require(b <= a, "SafeMath: subtraction overflow");
uint256 c = a - b;
return c;
}
/**
* @dev Returns the multiplication of two unsigned integers, reverting on
* overflow.
*
* Counterpart to Solidity's `*` operator.
*
* Requirements:
* - Multiplication cannot overflow.
*/
function mul(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
// Gas optimization: this is cheaper than requiring 'a' not being zero, but the
// benefit is lost if 'b' is also tested.
// See: https://github.com/OpenZeppelin/openzeppelin-solidity/pull/522
if (a == 0) {
return 0;
}
uint256 c = a * b;
require(c / a == b, "SafeMath: multiplication overflow");
return c;
}
/**
* @dev Returns the integer division of two unsigned integers. Reverts on
* division by zero. The result is rounded towards zero.
*
* Counterpart to Solidity's `/` operator. Note: this function uses a
* `revert` opcode (which leaves remaining gas untouched) while Solidity
* uses an invalid opcode to revert (consuming all remaining gas).
*
* Requirements:
* - The divisor cannot be zero.
*/
function div(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
// Solidity only automatically asserts when dividing by 0
require(b > 0, "SafeMath: division by zero");
uint256 c = a / b;
// assert(a == b * c + a % b); // There is no case in which this doesn't hold
return c;
}
/**
* @dev Returns the remainder of dividing two unsigned integers. (unsigned integer modulo),
* Reverts when dividing by zero.
*
* Counterpart to Solidity's `%` operator. This function uses a `revert`
* opcode (which leaves remaining gas untouched) while Solidity uses an
* invalid opcode to revert (consuming all remaining gas).
*
* Requirements:
* - The divisor cannot be zero.
*/
function mod(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
require(b != 0, "SafeMath: modulo by zero");
return a % b;
}
}
/**
* @dev Implementation of the `IERC20` interface.
*
* This implementation is agnostic to the way tokens are created. This means
* that a supply mechanism has to be added in a derived contract using `_mint`.
* For a generic mechanism see `ERC20Mintable`.
*
* *For a detailed writeup see our guide [How to implement supply
* mechanisms](https://forum.zeppelin.solutions/t/how-to-implement-erc20-supply-mechanisms/226).*
*
* We have followed general OpenZeppelin guidelines: functions revert instead
* of returning `false` on failure. This behavior is nonetheless conventional
* and does not conflict with the expectations of ERC20 applications.
*
* Additionally, an `Approval` event is emitted on calls to `transferFrom`.
* This allows applications to reconstruct the allowance for all accounts just
* by listening to said events. Other implementations of the EIP may not emit
* these events, as it isn't required by the specification.
*
* Finally, the non-standard `decreaseAllowance` and `increaseAllowance`
* functions have been added to mitigate the well-known issues around setting
* allowances. See `IERC20.approve`.
*/
contract MyERC20 is IERC20 {
using SafeMath for uint256;
mapping (address => uint256) private _balances;
mapping (address => mapping (address => uint256)) private _allowances;
// NOTE Start of https://github.com/OpenZeppelin/openzeppelin-solidity/blob/v2.3.0/contracts/token/ERC20/ERC20Detailed.sol
string private _name;
string private _symbol;
uint8 private _decimals;
constructor (string memory name, string memory symbol, uint8 decimals) public {
_name = name;
_symbol = symbol;
_decimals = decimals;
_mint(msg.sender, 100000 * 10 ** uint256(decimals)); // CAUTION!
}
/**
* @dev Returns the name of the token.
*/
function name() public view returns (string memory) {
return _name;
}
/**
* @dev Returns the symbol of the token, usually a shorter version of the
* name.
*/
function symbol() public view returns (string memory) {
return _symbol;
}
/**
* @dev Returns the number of decimals used to get its user representation.
* For example, if `decimals` equals `2`, a balance of `505` tokens should
* be displayed to a user as `5,05` (`505 / 10 ** 2`).
*
* Tokens usually opt for a value of 18, imitating the relationship between
* Ether and Wei.
*
* > Note that this information is only used for _display_ purposes: it in
* no way affects any of the arithmetic of the contract, including
* `IERC20.balanceOf` and `IERC20.transfer`.
*/
function decimals() public view returns (uint8) {
return _decimals;
}
// NOTE End of https://github.com/OpenZeppelin/openzeppelin-solidity/blob/v2.3.0/contracts/token/ERC20/ERC20Detailed.sol
uint256 private _totalSupply;
/**
* @dev See `IERC20.totalSupply`.
*/
function totalSupply() public view returns (uint256) {
return _totalSupply;
}
/**
* @dev See `IERC20.balanceOf`.
*/
function balanceOf(address account) public view returns (uint256) {
return _balances[account];
}
/**
* @dev See `IERC20.transfer`.
*
* Requirements:
*
* - `recipient` cannot be the zero address.
* - the caller must have a balance of at least `amount`.
*/
function transfer(address recipient, uint256 amount) public returns (bool) {
_transfer(msg.sender, recipient, amount);
return true;
}
/**
* @dev See `IERC20.allowance`.
*/
function allowance(address owner, address spender) public view returns (uint256) {
return _allowances[owner][spender];
}
/**
* @dev See `IERC20.approve`.
*
* Requirements:
*
* - `spender` cannot be the zero address.
*/
function approve(address spender, uint256 value) public returns (bool) {
_approve(msg.sender, spender, value);
return true;
}
/**
* @dev See `IERC20.transferFrom`.
*
* Emits an `Approval` event indicating the updated allowance. This is not
* required by the EIP. See the note at the beginning of `ERC20`;
*
* Requirements:
* - `sender` and `recipient` cannot be the zero address.
* - `sender` must have a balance of at least `value`.
* - the caller must have allowance for `sender`'s tokens of at least
* `amount`.
*/
function transferFrom(address sender, address recipient, uint256 amount) public returns (bool) {
_transfer(sender, recipient, amount);
_approve(sender, msg.sender, _allowances[sender][msg.sender].sub(amount));
return true;
}
/**
* @dev Atomically increases the allowance granted to `spender` by the caller.
*
* This is an alternative to `approve` that can be used as a mitigation for
* problems described in `IERC20.approve`.
*
* Emits an `Approval` event indicating the updated allowance.
*
* Requirements:
*
* - `spender` cannot be the zero address.
*/
function increaseAllowance(address spender, uint256 addedValue) public returns (bool) {
_approve(msg.sender, spender, _allowances[msg.sender][spender].add(addedValue));
return true;
}
/**
* @dev Atomically decreases the allowance granted to `spender` by the caller.
*
* This is an alternative to `approve` that can be used as a mitigation for
* problems described in `IERC20.approve`.
*
* Emits an `Approval` event indicating the updated allowance.
*
* Requirements:
*
* - `spender` cannot be the zero address.
* - `spender` must have allowance for the caller of at least
* `subtractedValue`.
*/
function decreaseAllowance(address spender, uint256 subtractedValue) public returns (bool) {
_approve(msg.sender, spender, _allowances[msg.sender][spender].sub(subtractedValue));
return true;
}
/**
* @dev Moves tokens `amount` from `sender` to `recipient`.
*
* This is internal function is equivalent to `transfer`, and can be used to
* e.g. implement automatic token fees, slashing mechanisms, etc.
*
* Emits a `Transfer` event.
*
* Requirements:
*
* - `sender` cannot be the zero address.
* - `recipient` cannot be the zero address.
* - `sender` must have a balance of at least `amount`.
*/
function _transfer(address sender, address recipient, uint256 amount) internal {
require(sender != address(0), "ERC20: transfer from the zero address");
require(recipient != address(0), "ERC20: transfer to the zero address");
_balances[sender] = _balances[sender].sub(amount);
_balances[recipient] = _balances[recipient].add(amount);
emit Transfer(sender, recipient, amount);
}
/** @dev Creates `amount` tokens and assigns them to `account`, increasing
* the total supply.
*
* Emits a `Transfer` event with `from` set to the zero address.
*
* Requirements
*
* - `to` cannot be the zero address.
*/
function _mint(address account, uint256 amount) internal {
require(account != address(0), "ERC20: mint to the zero address");
_totalSupply = _totalSupply.add(amount);
_balances[account] = _balances[account].add(amount);
emit Transfer(address(0), account, amount);
}
/**
* @dev Destroys `amount` tokens from `account`, reducing the
* total supply.
*
* Emits a `Transfer` event with `to` set to the zero address.
*
* Requirements
*
* - `account` cannot be the zero address.
* - `account` must have at least `amount` tokens.
*/
function _burn(address account, uint256 value) internal {
require(account != address(0), "ERC20: burn from the zero address");
_balances[account] = _balances[account].sub(value);
_totalSupply = _totalSupply.sub(value);
emit Transfer(account, address(0), value);
}
/**
* @dev Sets `amount` as the allowance of `spender` over the `owner`s tokens.
*
* This is internal function is equivalent to `approve`, and can be used to
* e.g. set automatic allowances for certain subsystems, etc.
*
* Emits an `Approval` event.
*
* Requirements:
*
* - `owner` cannot be the zero address.
* - `spender` cannot be the zero address.
*/
function _approve(address owner, address spender, uint256 value) internal {
require(owner != address(0), "ERC20: approve from the zero address");
require(spender != address(0), "ERC20: approve to the zero address");
_allowances[owner][spender] = value;
emit Approval(owner, spender, value);
}
/**
* @dev Destoys `amount` tokens from `account`.`amount` is then deducted
* from the caller's allowance.
*
* See `_burn` and `_approve`.
*/
function _burnFrom(address account, uint256 amount) internal {
_burn(account, amount);
_approve(account, msg.sender, _allowances[account][msg.sender].sub(amount));
}
}

MyERC20.sol consists of one interface IERC20, one library SafeMath and one contract MyERC20 which implements IERC20 interface.

  • IERC20 interface defines mandatory interface described at ERC-20 specification.

  • SafeMath library defines wrappers over Solidity's arithmetic operations with added overflow checks for safe calculation of uint256 type of Solidity.

  • MyERC20 implements IERC20 interfaces and also defines three optional methods described at ERC-20 specification.

    • In addition to ERC20, constructor is defined and this constructor is used to define a new ERC20 token name and symbol, and to mint a predefined amount of token. constructor is called once on its first deploy.

1.2 Take a look at important methods

Let's take a look at some important methods in detail.

(1) function balanceOf(address account) external view returns (uint256);

balanceOf is a mandatory method of ERC-20. balanceOf returns the balance of the given address.

function balanceOf(address account) public view returns (uint256) {
return _balances[account];
}

balanceOf just returns of value of key account stored in _balances which is mapping (address => uint256) type as below.

mapping (address => uint256) private _balances;

If there is no key account available in _balances, then it just returns 0.

(2) function transfer(address recipient, uint256 amount) external returns (bool);

transfer is a mandatory method of ERC-20. transfer transfers amount of tokens to recipient, and MUST fire the Transfer event. The function SHOULD throw if the message caller’s account balance does not have enough tokens to spend.

transfer just invokes internal method _transfer which implements actual transfer and event as below.

function transfer(address recipient, uint256 amount) public returns (bool) {
_transfer(msg.sender, recipient, amount);
return true;
}

_transfer implements actual behavior of transfer method of ERC-20.

In addition, it prevents sending token from or to zero address using require as below.

function _transfer(address sender, address recipient, uint256 amount) internal {
require(sender != address(0), "ERC20: transfer from the zero address");
require(recipient != address(0), "ERC20: transfer to the zero address");
_balances[sender] = _balances[sender].sub(amount);
_balances[recipient] = _balances[recipient].add(amount);
emit Transfer(sender, recipient, amount);
}

(3) function approve(address spender, uint256 amount) external returns (bool);

approve is a mandatory method of ERC-20. approve allows spender to withdraw from your account multiple times, up to the amount. If this function is called multiple times, it simply resets the allowance to amount.

approve just invokes internal method _approve which implements actual behavior of approve. msg.sender is passed as the account owner.

function approve(address spender, uint256 value) public returns (bool) {
_approve(msg.sender, spender, value);
return true;
}
function _approve(address owner, address spender, uint256 value) internal {
require(owner != address(0), "ERC20: approve from the zero address");
require(spender != address(0), "ERC20: approve to the zero address");
_allowances[owner][spender] = value;
emit Approval(owner, spender, value);
}

_approve updates _allowances which is a 2-dimensional dictionary maintaining allowed value for spender from specific address.

mapping (address => mapping (address => uint256)) private _allowances;

(4) function _mint(address account, uint256 amount) internal

_mint is not part of ERC-20. However we need a way to create new ERC-20 tokens and introduced _mint to create new tokens in this implementation as below.

function _mint(address account, uint256 amount) internal {
require(account != address(0), "ERC20: mint to the zero address");
_totalSupply = _totalSupply.add(amount);
_balances[account] = _balances[account].add(amount);
emit Transfer(address(0), account, amount);
}

_mint is an internal method and can be invoked inside of this contract.

In MyERC20.sol, _mint is invoked only once from constructor when deploying the smart contract to mint a predefined amount of token.

If you want to issue additional tokens after deploying the smart contract, you have to introduce a new public method such as mint. The method should be implemented with CAUTION because only authorized users should be able to mint tokens.

Please take a look at OpenZeppelin example ERC20Mintable.sol for more detail.